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Recent studies have used methods deed to obtain a precise quantitative assessment of sexual aggression, but these are based on the presumption of a normative psychological understanding of what the questionnaire items mean to respondents. The article draws on in-depth interviews to examine the optimal and pessimal sexual encounters and contexts participants encounter in their sex lives.
The main research question concerns how the boundary between wanted and unwanted sex is constructed. One important finding is that the concept of liminal hotspots can be used effectively to investigate the boundary between wanted and unwanted sex. In recent decades the issue of sexual violence has been dominated by both political and academic interest in child abuse. A great deal of research, campaigning, and policy-making has been directed at the prevention of such abuse.
The internet, electronic media and open channels of communication are all areas where sexual aggression and violence are on the increase among young people. Research in this area is a recent area of rapid growth Koss et al. The project findings indicated a high prevalence of sexual aggression and victimisation among young people across Europe. The Slovak rate is slightly higher than the EU average, at In addition to this quantitative and contextual approach, we have conducted a qualitative exploration of the subjective construction of the boundary between wanted and unwanted sexual interaction.
Koss et Slovakia sexual encounters. William Simon highlights the decisive role sexual scripts play in sexual interaction. The syntax of sexual scripts is contained within the language and other symbolic codes used. We can distinguish three types of scripts—cultural scripts mainly acquiredinterpersonal scripts created in interaction with othersand intrapsychic scripts mainly a result of reflections of our personal experiences. The notion of a sexual script is by nature a constructivist one and, according to Slovakia sexual encounters, it enables us to express the tension between permanence and change.
From a psychological point of view, it is a generative framework for analysis and prediction, as it enables us to understand the dynamics in the stability and variability of human sexual behaviour. They have distinguished four subjective meanings of sex: 1 sex concerning partnership, intimacy and love, Slovakia sexual encounters sex related to personal pleasure, 3 sex to please a partner, and 4 sex as a tool to improve self-reflection. In her recent study on the retrospective self-assessment of early sexual debut aged yearsKatrien Symons has demonstrated that there is a clear distinction between the effects of accelerated interaction and of the non-linearity in interactions leading to first sexual intercourse.
In a Goffmanian sense, acceleration refers to the speeding up of the succession of steps in which sexual partners engage contact, touching, kissing, necking, petting and eventually penetration when following culturally normative succession patterns. Accelerating this succession of steps does not necessarily seem to be related to a negative self-evaluation of early sexual debut. However, nonlinearity where the culturally normative succession of steps is disrupted or some steps are omitted, e. Examples include precarious labour conditions between employment and unemployment; flows of migration that yield hybrid identities; or stress-related illnesses that leave sufferers stuck in the diagnostic limbo of being neither legitimately sick nor healthy.
Another potential liminal hotspot is Slovakia sexual encounters interaction at a time when sexual, social, moral, and other norms ly demarcating good from bad, safe from unsafe, or wanted from unwanted, in sexual interaction are being deconstructed.
In a narrative-discursive approach this contrasting technique can be used to explore below the phenomenal surface of sexual interaction. The boundary between the wanted and the unwanted in sex can then be determined. This interview scenario also enables us to explore contexts that may be important in the construction of limits in sex: the influence of culture, the media, social environment and social norms. This paper is based on interviews with 28 heterosexual participants from Slovakia 17F, 11M, aged who had had at least two successive sexual partners.
The participants were recruited using the snow-ball technique and through a professional recruitment agency, reaching a saturation of data from the point of view of their sexual narratives. Optimal and pessimal sexual interaction episodes were analysed. Content validity was ensured by the fact that the interviews were independently coded by two researchers male and female and then the were integrated. How is the subjective boundary between wanted and unwanted sex constructed? To what extent does the exploration of the limits of sexual interaction suggest permanent liminality a liminality hotspot?
The male and female participants were kept separate as there is substantial evidence of gender differences in sexuality. The analysis of optimal and pessimal sex experiences shows important differences. There is a strong match between genders on the content of both kinds of experience, while there are also ificant differences in the content between genders. For all participants the optimum sexual experience was having sex in a stable partner relationship and pursuing bliss. However, female participants may also seek dialogue with their sexual partner and an absence of pressure, while male participants strongly emphasised the spontaneity of sex and continued to highly value their first experience of sex.
All the participants associated pessimal sex with disappointment that their freer expectations concerning sex had not been fulfilled and disillusionment with the lack of attachment from their partner. However, female participants considered the worst possible sex to involve physical and verbal Slovakia sexual encounters, while for male participants it could involve an unattractive partner or disruption during the sex act.
The notion of sex as a means of improving selfimage Slovakia sexual encounters surprisingly rare more surprising in males! In women it was only found in two forms—improving low self-body-image or gaining power in communication with males.
There were many reports of the cultural scripting of sex by participants. However, the cultural influences were completely different for females strict religious regulation, taboo effect in family compared to males pornography.
This is illustrated by the following quotes:. Answer: One would be enough. Sometimes I get so horny that I would try everybodybut as I am a Christian … My parents have never put any pressure on mein the last three years I have become a stronger believermy ex - boyfriend was religious so we attended religious seminars and so ….
At home there has never been any talk about sex.
They [her parents] never broached this topicor talked to us [children] about it directly. The data show a new category relating to the sexual scripts is required—interaction with peers. This turned out to be at least as influential as dyadic interaction with the sexual partner in scripting the sex. This brings us to the issue of constructing the subjective boundary between wanted and unwanted sex.
Here we distinguish between:. Our show that one general characteristic of the boundary holds true for both genders: it is partially constructed and vulnerable to shifting when alcohol is consumed.
So he started with my vagina and then shifted to Slovakia sexual encounters sex. And I liked it so much that now I want to have it every time. The gender distinction is reflected in the optimum-pessimum divide mentioned earlier. Some of the ideas participants expressed about the boundary could have been influenced by what they perceive to be socially desirable. If we return to our research questions, based on the data collected from our sample, we can state that:. There is a ificant process of discursive activity among sexual participants concerning the boundary of sexual interaction.
That boundary is, however, only partially constructed and liable to change. Among females it is much more likely to be more rigid. It is important that such incursions are viewed in relation to the potential for unwanted sex and possibly for sexual victimization to occur. The phenomenology of the subjective boundary differs for males and females, and can be considered one of the main sources of conflict in sexual interaction. This is especially true in light of the important gender difference in cultural scripting: females religion, family ; males porn.
Our findings may indicate that it is important to take the theoretical framework of liminal hotspots into when considering the complexity of sexual interactions in relation to sexual violence and the promotion of sexual health. It requires an analytic approach that primarily takes into the trajectories of each participant and investigates causality within the sexual narratives. Bianchi, Slovakia sexual encounters. Intimacy: from transformation to transmutation.
Search in Google Scholar. Olomouc, Czech Republic Sexuality III. Nitra: UKF. Koss, M. White, J. Revising the SES: A collaborative process to improve assessment of sexual aggression and victimization. Psychology of Women Quarterly31 Sexual scripts and heterosexual aggression. Trautner Eds. Journal of Sex Research44 The role of sexual scripts in sexual aggression and victimization. Archives of Sexual Behavior36 5 Sexual scripts and the acceptance of sexual aggression in Polish Adolescents.
European Journal of Developmental Psychology8 6 Simon, W. Postmodern sexualities. London: Routledge. Sexual scripts. Society22 1 Stenner, P. Thinking about affectivity and liminality together. The subjective meanings of sex and sexual satisfaction among more active young adults in Slovakia.
In Sexuality and gender in postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia pp. New York: The Haworth Press. Symons, K. Early first intercourse: Looking for the determinants of a positive experience. Van Gennep, A. The rites of passage M. Caffee Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Caffee, Trans. The rites of passage.
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Accessible Published by De Gruyter May 14, From the journal Human Affairs. Cite this. Abstract Recent studies have used methods deed to obtain a precise quantitative assessment of sexual aggression, but these are based on the presumption of a normative psychological understanding of what the questionnaire items mean to respondents.
Key words: sexual interaction ; liminality ; violence ; wanted and unwanted sex. Figure 1 Optimal vs. Figure 2 Dimensions of sexual interaction. There was little evidence of acceleration of non-linearity over the sex life.Slovakia sexual encounters
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Limits in sexual interaction: A liminality hotspot, rather than an explicit boundary? (the subjectivity of the boundary between wanted and unwanted sex)